is the easternmost state of India. Arunachal Pradesh borders with the state of Assam to the south and Nagaland to the southeast. Burma/Myanmar lies towards the east, Bhutan towards the west, and Tibet to the north. Itanagar is the capital of the state. Though Arunachal Pradesh is administered as an Indian State, the People's Republic of China (mainland China) and the Republic of China (Taiwan) claim portions of the state as South Tibet.
Arunachal Pradesh means "land of the dawn lit mountains" in Sanskrit. It is also known as "land of the rising sun" ("pradesh" means "state" or "region") in reference to its position as the easternmost state of India. Most of the people living in Arunachal Pradesh are of Tibeto-Burman origin. 16% of the population are immigrants, including 30,000 Bangladeshi and Chakma expatriates, and migrants from other parts of India, notably Assam and Nagaland. Part of the famous Ledo Burma Road, which was a lifeline to China during World War II, passes through the state.
The Nyishi are the largest groups of people inhabiting the major part of Lower Subansiri district. Their menfolk wear their hair long and tie it in a knot just above the forehead. They wear cane bands around the waist. They believe that after death the spirit of a dead travels to the 'village of the ancestors'. The Sulungs or Puroik are considered to be one of the oldest of the tribes in the area. Their dress and constumes are simple, and the religion is a form of the primitive ' spirit culture'
Arunachal Pradesh is divided into sixteen districts, each administered by a district collector, who sees to the needs of the local people. Especially along the Tibetan border, the Indian army has considerable presence due to the concern about Chinese intentions. Special permits called Inner Line Permits (ILP) are required to enter Arunachal Pradesh through any of it checkgates on its border with Assam.
Much of Arunachal Pradesh is covered by the Himalayas. However, parts of Lohit, Changlang and Tirap are covered by the Patkai hills. Kangto, Nyegi Kangsang, the main Gorichen peak and the Eastern Gorichen peak are some of the highest peaks in this region of the Himalayas.
In 2006 Bumla pass in Tawang was opened to traders for the first time in 44 years. Traders from both sides of the pass were permitted to enter each other's territories.
The Himalayan ranges that extend up to the eastern Arunachal separate it from China. The ranges extend toward Nagaland, and form a boundary between India and Burma in Changlang and Tirap district, acting as a natural barrier called Patkai Bum Hills. They are low mountains compared to the Greater Himalayas.
The climate of Arunachal Pradesh varies with elevation. Areas that are at a very high elevation in the Upper Himalayas close to the Tibetan border enjoy an alpine or Tundra climate. While below the Upper Himalayas are the Middle Himalayas, where people experience a climate which is temperate. Areas at the sub-Himalayan and sea-level elevation generally experience a humid sub-tropical climate, along with the hot summers and mild winters.
Arunchal Pradesh receives heavy rainfall of 80 to 160 inches (2,000 to 4,000 mm) annually, most of it between May and September. The mountain slopes and hills are covered with alpine, temperate, and subtropical forests of dwarf rhododendron, oak, pine, maple, fir, and juniper; sal (Shorea) and teak are the main economic species.
The state's airports are located at Daparjio, Ziro, Along, Tezu and Pasighat. However, owing to the rough terrain, these airports are mostly small and cannot handle many flights, they were actually used for transportation of food, when these parts were not connected by the roads. Arunachal Pradesh has two highways; the 336km (205 miles) National Highway 52, completed in 1998, connects Jonai with Dirak. There is another highway which connects Tezpur in Assam with Tawang. Now in 2007, every village is connected by road due to funding provided by the central government. Every small town has got its own bus station and daily bus services are available. All places are connected to Assam, which has increased the trading capacity. A National Highway is being constructed on the famous Stillwell Ledo Road, which connects Ledo in Assam to Jairampur in Arunacha